64. Montezinos, D. and R. M. Brown, Jr.
1976. Surface architecture of the plant cell: biogenesis of the
cell wall, with special emphasis on the role of the plasma membrane
in cellulose biosynthesis. J. Supramol. Structure 5:277-290.
Cell wall structure and biogenesis in the unicellular green alga, Oocystis apiculata, is described. The wall consists of an outer amorphous primary layer and an inner secondary layer of highly organized cellulosic microfibrils. The primary wall is deposited immediately after cytokinesis. Golgi-derived products contribute to this layer. Cortical microtubules underlie the plasma membrane immediately before and during primary wall formation. They function in maintaining the elliptical cell shape. Following primary wall synthesis, Golgi-derived materials accumulate on the cell surface to form the periplasmic layer. This layer functions in the deposition of coating and cross-linking substances which associate with cellulosic microfibrils of the incipient secondary wall. Secondary wall microfibrils are assembled in association with the plasma membrane. Freeze-etch preparations of untreated, living cells reveal linear terminal complexes in association with growing cellulosic microfibrils. These complexes are embedded in the EF fracture face of the plasma membrane. The newly synthesized microfibril lies in a groove of the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. The groove is decorated on the EF fracture face by perpendicular structures termed "ridges." The ridges interlink with definitive rows of particles associated with the PF fracture face of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. These particles are termed "granule bands," and they function in the orientation of the newly synthesized microfibrils. Microfibril development in relation to a coordinated multienzyme complex is discussed. The process of cell wall biogenesis in Oocystis is compared to that in higher plants.
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