113. Brown, Jr. R. M. 1987. Sources of cellulose:
A different perspective. IN: TAPPI Proc. Intl. Dis. Pulps Conference,
Geneva. pp. 1-5.
The purpose of this review is to examine
the different forms and sources of cellulose as they may apply
to potential industrial utilization. Various macromolecular parameters
of cellulose, including microfibrillar shape and form, orientation
of cellulose within the cell wall, on the cell surface, or in
the medium, will be described. In this context, cellulose of
great tensile strength and high crystallinity will be discussed.
These celluloses come from giant algal cells such as Valonia
and Boergesenia. The relationship of the microfibrillar
structure and its physical properties to the structure and geometry
of the cellulose synthesizing complex will be presented. Cellulose
can also be deposited not as a cell wall, but in the extracellular
medium in the form of spikes, ribbons, threads, or tubes. Organisms
such as Dictyostelium, Dinobryon, and Acetobacter
will be described. The particular advantages and uses of bacterial
cellulose will be covered and compared with conventional sources
such as woody tissues and cotton fibers. A knowledge of the molecular
and cellular levels of organization may provide guidance for the
screening of potential industrial cellulose-producing sources
in the future, including in vitro cellulose synthesis.
Guidelines towards these goals will be presented.